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Welcome

Individuals’ dwelling decisions –where and how they live– hold the potential of driving sustainability. However, citizens often lack the necessary tools to inform their decision-making.

The Mapdwell Project is about enabling communities with information that will drive sustainable practices, community awareness, energy efficiency, and smart development through the aggregate effort of individuals. By transforming accurate, open, and unbiased information into education and action, the project proposes an organic –yet highly auspicious– approach to the fossil fuel dilemma.

The Mapdwell team works at the intersection of data, design, and technology to craft innovative and intuitive analysis, assessment, and visualization tools –both at the building and context levels– for urban and non-urban regions and systems.

Mapdwell –a collective of academics and researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) and top professionals– actively engages communities, municipalities, and government agencies to help them disseminate knowledge and obtain sustainability.

Welcome!

Approach

Mapdwell Solar System is an interactive online rooftop solar mapping tool designed, engineered, and developed by Mapdwell LLC. It allows users to precisely estimate rooftop solar electric potential (PV panels) for almost every building in a given city by a simple click or by inputting an address.

The tool uses high-resolution (one meter by one meter grid) LiDAR data (Light Detection and Ranging) to create a three-dimensional model of the sample terrain that accounts for the shape of building rooftops and structures, existing infrastructure, and tree foliage. The model is later used as the base for evaluating the amount of solar irradiation that falls on each unit of surface –for every single hour of a typical year– and determining its individual potential for solar electric generation using photovoltaic (PV) panels.

Calculated irradiation data is generated using technology developed –and licensed exclusively to Mapdwell LLC– by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) at the Building Technology Sustainable Design Lab.

These algorithms account for the most comprehensive and accurate approach available today. Validation testing has shown that our technology yields results with a ±3-5% margin of error.

Aerial photograph of sample area.
LiDAR point cloud and building polygons.
Simplification algorithm and building exclusion.
3D LiDAR-based model for simulation process.
Model combined with solar radiation data.
Results shown in Mapdwell Solar System.

Assumptions

IMPORTANT NOTICE: MAPDWELL SOLAR SYSTEM is no substitute to an on-site assessment performed by a certified professional. MAPDWELL SOLAR SYSTEM is a remote evaluation tool, based on topographical surveys, information models, and simulation methodologies, and results may be unavailable or inaccurate due to issues including, but not limited to, partial sample obsolescence, excess of vegetation or non-modeled obstructions, incomplete or corrupted databases, incomplete or corrupted GIS layers, undetectable partial obstructions based on survey resolution, and force majeure. MAPDWELL does not guarantee the accuracy of the data or the applicability of the information provided by MAPDWELL SOLAR SYSTEM.

Mapdwell Solar System considers only the high-potential surface area of roofs –defined as "average", "good" and "optimal" in the map's legend– to define maximum system size. Mapdwell Solar System provides cost, financial, technical, and environmental information based on the assumptions described below. Please note that these assumptions are subject to change.

Mapdwell Solar System displays key information in its “Dashboard Display”, including (1) Cost To Owner [$], (2) Monthly Revenue [$], (3) System Size [kW], (4) Payback Period [Y], and (5) Carbon Offset [trees per year]. Complete description and assumptions involved in these metrics can be found in their respective Section below.

For assumption values, please refer to Table 1.

Description Value
Installed System Cost 5.24 $/Watt
Safety Factor 5% Yield Reduction
Panel Efficiency 16 %
Panel Size 3' 4" x 5' 1" (40" x 61")

Table 1. Assumption Values

  1. Money

    The money tab lists the main cost and revenue indicators.

    1. Cost to Owner

      Refers to the total and final cost to the building (or system) owner, after considering “Total System Cost” (as defined below) and subtracting all available incentives (tax credits, rebates, local incentives, etc.). Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

      1. Total System Cost

        Refers to the total installed system cost. It’s a linear value based on an average price per installed Watt. Unit is United States Dollars [US $]

      2. Installation Incentives (location based)

        Refers to the list of all the available installation incentives, at all levels, that may be deducted to the “Total System Cost”. These incentives vary by location. Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

        1. Federal Tax Credit

          Federal Tax Credit of 30% of total system cost. More Information.

        2. State Tax Credit

          State tax credit of 15% of the total system cost, capped at $1,000 and applicable only for residential buildings. More Information.

        3. MassCEC Rebate

          MassCEC 7% rebate capped at $2,000 and only applicable to systems under 15kW. More Information.

    2. Revenue per month

      Refers to the aggregated amount of money that is being obtained directly through consumption offsets, netted out from the electricity bill, and indirectly through any and all available and applicable “Generation Incentives”, as defined above. Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

      1. Generation Incentives

        Refers to the list of all available indirect generation incentives available and applicable. These incentives vary by location. Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

        1. Generation Value

          Refers to the amount of money per month equivalent to all contributed electricity by the system to the local grid by net metering, and balanced via your electricity bill monthly. This is estimated at 12.5 ¢/kWh. Please note that there might be applicable caps.

        2. SRECs

          Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs) are calculated at their established price floor for each year, starting at an after-fee Auction Price of 28.5 ¢/kWh on 2014 and decreasing thereafter. This provides a worst-case scenario. Actual SREC prices are subject to market conditions. More Information.

    3. Total Revenue

      Refers to the aggregated amount of money per year that is being obtained directly through consumption offsets, netted out from the electricity bill, and indirectly through any and all available and applicable “Generation Incentives”, as defined below. Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

  2. Investment

    The investment tab lists return and performance indicators as well as comparative traditional investments.

    1. Payback Period

      Refers to the period of time required for the Total Revenue per Year” (the return on the investment) to make up for the Cost to Owner (the original investment). This definition does not consider the time value of money. Unit is Years [y] and Months [mo].

    2. Net Present Value (NPV)

      Refers to the excess cash flow (positive or negative) of discounting the Cost to Owner amount at 5% interest rate for 10 years. This is an indicator of the value or magnitude of the investment. This calculation considers a residual cost of 10% of Total System Size as defined above after 10 years. Unit is United States Dollars [US $].

    3. Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

      Refers to the discounted cash flow rate or the annualized effective compounded return rate. This is an indicator of the efficiency, quality, or yield of the investment and can be used to compare to alternative investments. This calculation considers a residual cost of 10% of Total System Size as defined above after 10 years. Unit is Percentage [%].

    4. Comparative Investments

      Refers to the list of typical traditional investments, as defined below, provided for comparison purposes.

      1. US Treasury Bond (10 year)

        Refers to the Ten-Year Treasury Rate for United States’ Treasury Bonds. It is updated live with the latest value (within ±5 days). Unit is Percentage [%].

      2. Dow Jones

        Refers to the yearly variation in price of the Dow Jones Industrial Average –also known as the Dow 30 or Dow– stock market index. It is displayed for the last calendar year (i.e. 2013 will shows 2012’s DOW’s performance). Unit is Percentage [%].

      3. Gold

        Refers to the yearly variation in price of gold as a commodity. It is displayed for the last calendar year (i.e. 2013 will shows 2012’s gold’s performance). Unit is Percentage [%].

  3. Technical

    The technical tab lists material and technical rooftop and system details and requirements.

    1. Total Roof Area

      Refers to the total pitched footprint of the roof of the building considering its horizontal projection adjusted to its actual slope. To correct for modular losses, chimneys, mechanical equipment, skylights, domes and/or any other obstruction on the roof, a one-meter (~3 feet) offset (from all rooftop boundaries) is considered for this calculation. Unit is Square Feet [f²]Square Meter [m²].

    2. High Potential Area

      Refers to is the portions of the selected rooftop’s area –as defined above– that yield a ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ result, when considering both the real surface projection to its actual slope and this surface's annual irradiation. These values, derived from a complex simulation process, are represented by color-coded dots. Unit is Square Feet [f²]Square Meter [m²].

    3. Number of Panels

      Refers to the actual number of standard 3 feet by 5 feet PV panels that would be required for the selected system. Please note that this is a referential value, as it does not account for precise rooftop shape or existing obstructions. Unit is Actual Panels [#].

    4. System Size

      Refers to the installed system size of the selected system. Please note that this is not a performance metric as it is only accounting for the installed panels’ potential performance. Unit is kilo Watts [kW] rounded down to the nearest unit to assist users in the design of their systems.

    5. Electricty Output

      Refers to the actual total electricity generation of the selected system for an entire typical year. A Typical Year refers to the average of hourly weather data collected for a location over several years. Unit is Kilo Watts per Year [kW/y].

    6. Panel Efficiency

      Refers to the Photovoltaic panel efficiency –the actual percentage of the total irradiation exposure that the panels can convert into useable electricity– as defined by their manufacturer. Mapdwell Solar System calculates hourly PV panel efficiency due to temperature increase based on recorded outdoor temperatures and hourly simulated irradiance. The calculations are based on a 16% efficiency panel with a temperature correction factor of 0.4% per degree kelvin and a rooftop solar absorptivity of 80%.

      The DC to AC conversion at the inverter is assumed to operate at a constant 96% efficiency. When selecting a PV panel efficiency other than 16% from the Solarsystem interface, the resulting energy production is calculated by the formula [SelectedEfficiency * EnergyYieldAtBaseEfficiency] / 16%. Please note efficiency ratings vary depending on panel type, manufacturer, etc. Unit is Percentage [%].

  4. Carbon

    The carbon tab shows the carbon emission’s offset of the selected system and list several equivalences for easier understanding.

    1. Carbon Dioxide Offset

      Refers to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions equivalent to generating the selected system’s electricity output by conventional energy sources (carbon, hydroelectric, nuclear, and others). According to the The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database, the NPCC NEW ENGLAND region has a Non-baseload output emission rate of 1,157.44 lb of CO2/MWh generated and the Grid Gross Loss for the East region is 5.82%. Unit is in US Short Tons per Year [US Tons/y]Metric Tons per Year [Tons/y].

    2. Trees Planted

      Refers to the amount of carbon dioxide being captured by trees (carbon sequestration) –as defined by the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. It is based on the number of trees needed to sequester 1 metric ton of Carbon over the course of their first ten years. The assumed value is 25.641 tree seedlings grown for 10 years per metric ton of carbon dioxide. Unit is Trees per Year [Trees/y].

    3. Driving Distance

      Refers to the amount of carbon emissions produced by driving a standard passenger car with average fuel efficiency. The assumptions for this calculation are an average efficiency of 30.1mpg12.8 km/L, as defined by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and 1 short ton0.907 tons of Carbon produced by burning 102 gallons386 liters of gasoline as defined by the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. With these criteria, driving 3,070 miles4 940 km produces 1 short ton0.907 ton of CO. Unit is Miles per Year [mi/y] Kilometers per Year [km/y].

    4. Flying Distance

      Refers to the amount of carbon emissions produced by a single person when flying on an average sized, 90% full commercial airliner. Values for this calculation are 0.0002213 short tons (US) per mile per passenger –according to DEFRA– and 1 short ton of Carbon produced by burning 102 gallons of gasoline as defined by the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. With these criteria, flying 4,518 miles7,271 kilometers on a commercial aircraft produces 1 short ton of CO. Unit is Miles per Year [mi/y] Kilometers per Year [km/y].

    5. Residential A/C

      1 Refers the number of hours per year that a standard 1.8 kW Air Conditioning System could be turned on with the system’s electricity output. 1 kWh of energy is enough to keep a 1.5 kW Air Conditioning System on for 1kWh / 1.5 kW = 0.67 hours. The unit is [hours/y].

    6. 60-Watt Light Bulb

      Refers the number of days per year that a standard 60-Watt light bulb could be turned on with the system’s electricity output. 1 kWh of energy is enough to keep a 60-Watt light bulb on for 1kWh / 60 W = 16.67 hours. The unit is [days/y].

USE THE SEARCH BAR TO FIND AN ADDRESS.

THE DASHBOARD PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF THE BUILDING'S RECOMMENDED SYSTEM.

THE SYSTEM TABS PROVIDE DETAILED SYSTEM INFO IN FOUR CATEGORIES: (1) MONEY, (2) INVESTMENT, (3) TECHNICAL, AND (4) THE ENVIRONMENT.

USE THE ADVANCED TOOLS TO CUSTOMIZE YOUR SYSTEM AND/OR CREATING YOUR OWN.

...LEARN MORE

PAN, ZOOM, AND USE THE MAP TOOLS TO NAVIGATE THE MAP.

LEARN MORE ABOUT YOUR COMMUNITY AND AVAILABLE RESOURCES ON THE CITY TAB.

USE THE SLIDER TO CUSTOMIZE YOUR SYSTEM'S SIZE BY YIELD.

USE THE POLYGON TOOL TO DRAW A SYSTEM OVER YOUR ROOFTOP.

USE THE SELECTION TOOL TO FINE-TUNE YOUR SYSTEM BY TURNING POINTS ON AND OFF.

USE THE CLEAR TOOL TO DELETE YOUR CUSTOMIZED SYSTEM AND START OVER.

USE THE INFO BUTTON TO OPEN AND CLOSE THIS TAB.

Terms Of Use

PLEASE READ THESE TERMS OF USE CAREFULLY BEFORE USING "Mapdwell Solar System"

Your use of the Mapdwell Solar System solar mapping application website and database/s (collectively, the "Site") as developed by Mapdwell LLC ("Mapdwell") is subject to the following Terms of Use.

If you do not agree with these Terms of Use, please do not use the Site. Your use of the Site indicates your acceptance of these Terms of Use. If we make any material changes to these Terms of Use, those changes will be posted here so that you are always aware of our Terms of Use. Since these Terms of Use may change from time to time, you should check back periodically. Your continued use of the Site following the posting of changes to the Terms of Use indicates your acknowledgement and acceptance of such changes.

APPROVED USE:

(1) Mapdwell hereby grants you a nonexclusive, nontransferable license to access and use the Site solely for personal, noncommercial, educational/research purposes in accordance with these Terms of Use. Use of the Site for commercial purposes, including without limitation use in furtherance of research and development activities performed for a commercial entity, or use for unlawful, illegal, or otherwise unethical activity in any jurisdiction, is strictly prohibited. You may not reverse engineer, deconstruct, or disassemble any components of the Site.

(2) Solar System Information Upload: You may upload information about your existing solar PV system onto the Site by filling out the form available on the Site. Any data you upload to the Site will be incorporated into Mapdwell’s Solar Map database. Personal information will not be shared outside of Mapdwell, and will not be displayed on the Map unless you choose to do so. Mapdwell reserves the right to verify data and publish it on the Solar Map solely based on its own verification.

USE OF THE DATA UPLOAD FUNCTION IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. While we will take reasonable precautions to ensure that the Site is secure, we cannot guarantee, or otherwise prevent, exposure, access, or hijack of your data by an unauthorized third-party during the loading process or while your uploaded data reside in the Mapdwell’s database or databases. Any loss, exposure, or damage of data is strictly at your own risk.

(3) Acknowledgement: If you use the Site for research, you agree to acknowledge the contribution of the Site and Mapdwell in any publication relating to the research. Please indicate that the Solar Tool is "© Mapdwell LLC. All rights reserved."

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND OWNERSHIP NOTICE:

Excluding imagery and logos provided by individual subscribers, the Site and all materials published on the Site, including, but not limited to, images, logos, all Site software, text, graphic material, or other copyrightable elements, the selection and arrangements thereof, and trademarks, service marks, trade names and any other intellectual property related to the Solar Tool are the property of Mapdwell or licensed by Mapdwell. Except for Approved Uses, you are prohibited from reproducing, modifying, or otherwise using any Content without the express written consent of Mapdwell.

ACCURACY AND DATA INTEGRITY:

While we attempt to ensure the integrity and accuracy of the Site, we do not guarantee correctness or accuracy of such contents. Inaccuracies may include, but are not limited to, typographical errors, inaccuracies in data presentation, additions or deletions, or Site alterations by an unauthorized third-party. In the event that you become aware of any inaccuracy, please contact us. Please be aware that the Site may change without notice.

DISCLAIMER AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY:

You hereby agree not to hold Mapdwell, any of Mapdwell Solar System’s subscribers, or any of the partners, their affiliates, and their respective officers, directors, employees, agents, and representatives liable for any services delivered which originated through the Site or were otherwise provided by someone affiliated with the Site and you hereby release all such persons from claims, demands and damages (actual or consequential) of every kind and nature, known and unknown, disclosed and undisclosed, arising out of or in any way connected with such disputes.

THE MATERIALS IN THE SITE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE DATABASE/S, ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMISSIBLE PURSUANT TO APPLICABLE LAW, MAPDWELL LLC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, MAPDWELL LLC MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES (i) OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, (ii) THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE SITE IS ACCURATE, COMPLETE, CORRECTLY SEQUENCED, RELIABLE OR TIMELY, OR (iii) THAT THE SITE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR FREE OF ERRORS AND/OR VIRUSES. YOU HEREBY SPECIFICALLY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT MAPDWELL LLC, ITS AFFILIATES, AND THEIR RESPECTIVE OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, AND REPRESENTATIVES ARE NOT LIABLE FOR THE ILLEGAL CONDUCT OF OTHER USERS OF THE SITE OR THIRD-PARTIES AND THAT THE RISK OF INJURY FROM THE FOREGOING RESTS ENTIRELY WITH YOU. YOU USE THE SITE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT OR NEGLIGENCE, WILL MAPDWELL LLC, ITS AFFILIATES, OR THEIR RESPECTIVE OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, AND REPRESENTATIVES BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS) THAT ARISE OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY FAILURE OF PERFORMANCE, ERRORS, INACCURACIES, OMISSIONS, DEFECTS, UNTIMELINESS, INTERRUPTION, DELETION, DELAY IN OPERATION OR TRANSMISSION, COMPUTER VIRUS, COMMUNICATION LINE FAILURE, THEFT OR DESTRUCTION OR UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO, ALTERATION OF, OR USE OF RECORD, OR UNAUTHENTICITY OF ANY CONTENT IN THE SITE, OR THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS SITE OR ANY CONTENT THEREIN. IN NO EVENT SHALL SUCH PARTIES' AGGREGATE LIABILITY TO YOU FOR ANY LOSS, DAMAGE OR CLAIM RELATED TO OR ARISING OUT OF THIS SITE EXCEED THE TOTAL AMOUNTS PAID BY YOU FOR ACCESSING THIS SITE, IF ANY.

INDEMNIFICATION:

You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless Mapdwell, its affiliates, and their respective officers, directors, employees, agents, and representatives from and against all claims, losses, expenses, liabilities, damages, and costs (including attorneys’ fees) arising out of or relating to from your (a) use of the Site, (b) violation of any third party right, or (c) breach of any of these Terms of Use. Mapdwell reserves the right to assume, at its own expense, the exclusive defense and control of any matter subject to indemnification by you, in which event you will fully cooperate with Mapdwell in asserting any available defenses. In any event, you agree not to settle any such matter without the prior written consent from Mapdwell LLC.

JURISDICTION:

These Terms of Use and all matters or issues collateral thereto will be governed by, construed, and enforced in accordance with the laws of the State of Massachusetts applicable to contracts executed and performed entirely therein (without regard to any principles of conflict of laws), and jurisdiction for any court action in the State.

SOLAR SYSTEM
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BY LETTING US KNOW WHERE YOU ARE, YOU HELP US KNOW WHERE TO GO NEXT.

THANK YOU.

IF YOU ARE A BUSINESS, AGENCY, OR INSTITUTION INTERESTED IN PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES AND BRINGING SOLAR TO YOUR COMMUNITY, GET IN TOUCH!
INQUIRIES@MAPDWELL.COM

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DOW 26.5% GOLD -28.3% ^TNX
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    Welcome to Solar System Cambridge, MA. Click on a building or search for an address to begin. Drag the marker to your rooftop. Empty selection. Thank you for uploading your project. It will appear on the map shortly. Please select a building with no system first. Please zoom in to select a building.
    Entering EDIT MODE. Use the slider to adjust your recommended system's size or the "Advanced Tools" to create your own.
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    About this Initiative

    With a click, the Cambridge Solar Tool shows Cambridge residents, businesses, and property owners how much electricity can be produced on their rooftops from solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, how the financial investment will pay off, and how much pollution will be reduced.

    Solar energy is a key strategy for Cambridge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the community more resilient to the impacts of climate change. To promote solar installations the City of Cambridge worked with Mapdwell to develop The Solar Tool.

    Mapdwell developed the solar potential data delivered and visualized through Solar System as well as the complete cost/benefit analysis modules, while the City of Cambridge provided the underlying input datasets, content, and imagery.

    The City of Cambridge intends to regularly update the tool to reflect changing market conditions and financial incentives. Please note that the PV market is very dynamic and some assumptions may at times not be entirely up to date, given the ever-changing reality of the market.

    The Cambridge Energy Alliance (CEA) program assists the community in taking the next steps toward installing a PV system. Please contact CEA with renewable energy and energy efficiency related questions.

    Resources

    Thank you. We will keep in touch.

    Stay informed!

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    Four Easy Steps to Install Solar on your building:

    1. Find your potential on the Cambridge Solar Tool
    2. Contact installers to get a free site assessment and quote
    3. Decide to lease or own the solar panels
    4. Install and reap the benefits

    Installers help you select the best system(s), guide you through the application process for incentives, and answer any questions you may have about how best to proceed.

    There is not a recommended or "approved" list of solar installers in Massachusetts. A useful set of questions and resources are available from the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC). Please contact the Cambridge Energy Alliance with any energy related questions, from efficiency to solar.

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